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直接引語變間接引語的方法

  一、如何變人稱:

  學生在將直接引語變間接引語時。常常弄不清人稱變化。下面有一句順口溜“一隨主。二隨賓,第三人稱不更新”。“一隨主”是指在直接引語變間接引語時,如果從句中的主語是第一人稱或被第一人稱所修飾。從句中的人稱要按照主句中主語的人稱變化如:

  She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.

  “二隨賓”是指直接引語變間接引語時,若從句中的主語及賓語是第二人稱。或被第二人你所修飾。從句中的人稱要跟引號外的主句的賓語一致。如果引號外的主句沒有賓語。也可以用第一人稱,如:

  He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。

  “第三人稱不更新”是指直接引語變間接引語時。如果從句中的主語及賓語是第三人稱或被第三人稱所修飾從句中的人稱一般不需要變化如:

  Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。

  二、如何變時態:

  直接引語在改為間接引語時、時態需要做相應的調整。

  現在時它需改為過去時態;過去時態改為完成時;過去完成時則保留原來的時態。如:

  1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen

  2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.

  3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。

  但要註意在以下幾種情況下。在直接引語變為間接引語時,時態一般不變化。

  ①直接引語是客觀真理。

  "The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。

  ②直接引語是過去進行時,時態不變。如:

  Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。

  ③直接引語中有具體的過去某年、某月、某日作狀語,變為間接引語時,時態不變。如:

  Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。

  ④直接引語如果是一般現在時。表示一種反復出現或習慣性的動作,變間接引語,時態不變。如:

  He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。

  ⑤如果直接引語中的情態動詞沒有過去時的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已經是過去時的形式時,(例:could, should, would, might)不再變。如:

  Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。

  三、如何變狀語:

  直接引語變間接引語,狀語變化有其內在規津,時間狀語由“現在”改為“原來”(例:now變為then, yesterday。變為 the day before)地點狀語,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代詞修飾的狀語,由“此”改為“彼”(例:this 改為that),如:

  He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.

  四、如何變句型:

  ①直接引語如果是陳述句,間接引語應改為由that引導的賓語從句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

  ②直接引語如果是反意疑問句,選擇疑問句或一般疑問句,間接引語應改為由whether或if引導的賓語從句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.

  "You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.

  "Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

  ③直接引語如果是特殊問句,間接引語應該改為由疑問代詞或疑問副詞引導的賓語從句(賓語從句必須用陳述句語序)。

  She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

  ④直接引語如果是祈使句,間接引語應改為"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:

  "Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

  ⑤直接引語如果是以“Let‘s”開頭的祈使句,變為間接引語時,通常用“suggest +動句詞(或從句)。”如:

  He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.