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英語語法填空技巧 完形填空解題技巧

  語法填空是通過語篇在語境中考察語法知識的運用能力,我們在解題前應快速瀏覽短文掌握大意,有把握的空格可以先進行填寫.在讀懂短文的基礎上,再結合短文提供的特定的語言環境去逐句分析,逐題解答.下面按題型設計分三種情況:

  一,純空格試題的解題技巧

  純空格填空題主要是填冠詞,介詞,代詞,連接詞(含從屬連詞和並列連詞)等虛詞.

  首先,分析句子結構,根據句子所缺成分確定填哪類詞.然後,根據句子意思,確定具體填什麼詞;或根據兩句間的邏輯關系確定具體用哪個連詞.共有以下7個技巧:

  技巧1:在簡單句和並列句中,若句子缺主語或賓語,一定是填代詞.

  例1.I can’t send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and _it gets there almost in a second.

  技巧2:名詞前面,若沒有限定詞(冠詞,形容詞性物主代詞,不定代詞等),很可能是填限定詞.

  例2. It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty was very anxious to help _his_rice crop grow up quickly.

  例3.…the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to__a__small town some 20 kilometers away where there was a garage.

  技巧3:名詞或代詞在句中不作主語,表語或動詞的賓語時,其前面,一定是填介詞.

  例4.…who should have the honour of receiving me _as_a guest in their house.

  技巧4: 若兩個或幾個單詞或短語之間沒有連詞,可能是填連詞.

  例5.…two world-famous artists, Pablo Picasso__and__Cabdido Poitinari, which are worth millions of dollars.

  例6…all I saw was this beautiful girls, whose smile just melted me __and_ almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about.

  技巧5: 若兩個句子(即兩個主謂結構)之間沒有連詞,也沒有分號或句號,一定是填並列連詞(連接並列的句子)或從屬連詞(連接定語從句,名詞性從句和狀語從句).

  例7:The greatest magician of all time was Harry Houdini ___who_died in 1926.

  例8:In Japan,for example,it is normal for the woman tosend chocolates to the man while/but in Korea April 14th is known as "Black Day".

  例9:He was very tired after doing thus foe a whole day, _but___ he felt very happy.

  技巧6: 由特殊句式結構來判斷空格應填的詞.

  (1) 由it is … that… 強調結構的形式,判斷it 還是that.判斷方法:去掉it is … that…結構,句子還是一個完整的句子就是強調句型.

  (2) 由it 作形式主語或形式賓語的句式判斷,空格是否填it.

  例10:…and ___it__ was only after I heard she become sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味精).

  例11:… as ___it__ took them just three minuts to steal paintings by two worls-famous artists..

  例12:Dating sites also makes___it__ easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in.

  (3) 在倒裝句式中通常填only, so, neither, nor, never, hardly, seldom, not…until等詞.

  例13:__Only___ with hard work can you expect to get pay rise.

  (4) so / such …that…句型

  例14:This made the goat so jealous ___that___ it began plotting against the donkey.

  (5) more …than…(與其說……不如說……,比……更……)句型.

  例15:Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people rememberr more how much a manager cares ___than____ how much he pays.

  二,給出瞭動詞的試題解題技巧

  首先,判斷要填的動詞是謂語動詞還是非謂語動詞.然後按照以下兩點進行思考.

  技巧7:若句子沒有別的謂語動詞,或者雖然已有謂語動詞,但需填的動詞與之是並列關系時,所給動詞就是謂語動詞;若是謂語動詞,就要考慮時態語態.

  例16:When I die, I will give (give) everything to you.

  例17:That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her invitation,_closed__(close) my book and walked away.

  例18:In Loganm three people _were taken_(take) to a hospital, while others were treated at a local clinic.

  例19: Being too anxious to help an event develop often results in (result) the countrary to our intention.

  例20: Now,Valentine"s Day is celebrated(celebrate) in many countries around the world.

  技巧8: 若句中已有謂語動詞,又不是並列謂語時,所給動詞就是非謂語動詞.若是非謂語動詞就要確定是v-ing形式,-ed形式,還是不定式,確定的方法主要有:

  (1) 作主語或賓語,通常用v-ing 形式表示習慣或一般情況,用不定式表示具體情況.

  例21:…but it is not enough only _to memorize_(memorize) rules from a grammar book.

  例22:Speaking_(speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary…

  例23:He wann’t used to being taken (take) care of like that.

  (2) 作目的狀語或在形容詞後作狀語,一般用不定式.

  例24:_To_complete_(complete) the project as planed, we’ll have to work two more hours a day.

  例25:Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely__to succeed_(succeed).

  (3) 作伴隨狀語,通常用分詞,若與邏輯主語是主動關系,用現在分詞(v-ing);若是被動關系,用過去分詞(-ed).

  例26:He saw the stone, __saying_(say) to himself: "the night will be very dark."

  例27:The headmaster went into the lab, _followed_(follow) by the foreign guests.

  例28:Problems, depending (depend)on their nature, cause us sadness or loneliness or regret or anger or fear.

  (4) 無論非謂語動詞在句子作何種成分,若判斷得出其需要用分詞時,分詞與邏輯主語是主動關系,用現在分詞(v-ing);是被動關系,用過去分詞(-ed).

  例29:While she was getting me.settled (settle) into a tiny but clean room,…

  例30:Lessons _learned_(learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people.

  例31:The dinosaur was forced to adapt and evolved into a smaller animal needing (need) less space and food.

  例32:A room full of candiates for a state examination timed (time) exactly by electronic clocks.

  例33:It was a presidental talk delivered ( deliver) at a time of…

  其次,若所給動詞既不做謂語也不做非謂語,那就是詞的轉換題.

  技巧9: 動詞的詞類轉換主要做主語,賓語和定語.

  例34:There are uncomfortable (comfort) feelings often as any kind of physical pain.

  例35:I t came into existence (exist) with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry.

  例36:They entered the Credit Lyonnais branch using building equipment (equip) to dig holes

  例37:But a mother in North Cardina said she thought the speech (speak) could have a positive impact.

  例38:We can have the most supportive (support) parents and the best schools in the world.

  例39:When China’s ancient scientific and technological _achievements_(achieve) are mentioned, the nation will generally prefer to the Four Great Inventions.

  例40:These people have made great _contributions (contribute) to China with their work.

  例41:…instructors expect students to be familiar with _information_ (inform) in the reading.

  例42:But Jane knew from past experience that her choice (choose) of ties hardly ever pleased her father.

  三,詞類轉換題的解題技巧

  這類題主要是考查名詞,形容詞和副詞,根據該詞在句中所作句子成分確定用那種形式,具體技巧有以下三種.

  技巧10: 作表語(在系動詞之後),定語(修飾名詞)或賓補(表性質狀態),通常用形容詞形式.

  例43:The youngster immediately fell _silent_(silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes.

  例44:In a _dangerous_(danger ) part of the sea off the coast of New Zealand, they leart to…

  例45:Teachers must try their best to make most of their students _interested_(interest) in the subject.

  例46:This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their natural (nature) course.

  技巧11: 修飾動詞,形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,作狀語,用副詞形式.

  例47:As I looked _colsely (close) at this girl, I found that…

  例48:There must be something _seriously_(serious) wrong with our society.

  例49:Singles are flocking(湧向) to the Internet _mainly (main) because their busy lifesytyles leave them little time…

  例50:Fortunately (fortune),the guest escaped unharmed.

  技巧12: 有的詞義轉換題,詞類或詞性不一定要變,主要是考查具有與詞根意義相反的派生詞,需要句子意思及前後邏輯關系,在詞根前加un-, im-, in-等,在詞根後加-less等.

  例51: People certainly have a variety of reasons for going back to school but one important thing to know is, no knowledge is _useless_(use).

  例52:Your mistake caused a lot of _unnecessary_(necessary) work in the office.

  例53:Its origins are unclear (clear) and hidden in the river of time.

  技巧13: 括號中所給詞若是形容詞或副詞,有可能考查其比較級或最高級.

  例54:The other frog went on jumping as hard as he could… he jumped even _harder_(hard) and nearly made himself out.

  例55:The _worst_(bad) damage was reported in the towns of Logan and Clovis, which are about 80 miles apart, police said.

  例56:…,but he felt very happy since the crop did "grow" higher (high)

  以上僅對語法填空中的主要情況進行瞭概括,在做語法填空題時,還應註意英語中的固定句型,固定搭配等.