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職稱英語閱讀理解新增文章——衛生類

The leading cause of lung cancer among women in the city was cooking oil fumes while men are more likely to develop the disease from smoking, said medical experts after a five-year research study.

Doctors announced the results yesterday with analysis on some new tendencies in lung cancer. They said patients are younger, especially women.

According to the Shanghai Tumor research Institute, more local residents die of lung cancer in the city than anything else. Following breast cancer, it has the second-highest incidence rate.

"An unhealthy lifestyle is a very important reason for lung cancer," said Dr He Yumin from Shanghai Minshen Traditional Chinese Medicine Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Center.

He followed 2,276 lung cancer patients for five years. Among them, 1,433 were male.

Smoking causes 70 percent of cases among men while only 18 percent of female patients developed cancer from smoking or inhaling second-hand smoke, according to the report.

However, more than 60 percent of women with the disease had long term, close contact with strong oil fumes from cooking and complained about1 irritated eyes and throat.

About 32 percent of women fried foods in boiling oil in unventilated kitchens and about 25 percent of women’s bedrooms were adjacent to2 the kitchen.

However, local women were surprised to learn cooking oil fumes could lead to cancer. Some claimed they may change food preparation methods.

"Unless my family and I don’t eat at home every day, I must stay in the kitchen to cook," said Xu Li, a 45-year-old local woman. "I know the fumes are bad for the skin, but it is the first time I heard that it can result in lung cancer. I have already started frying less."

Doctors said women’s lung cancer had few links to personal health and physical condition, but

was closely related to family cancer history, unhealthy dietary habits and weak immune systems.

Other experts agreed with He.3

"Smoking is by far the biggest cause4 of lung cancer for men," said Dr Tan Binyong, honorary president of the Respiratory Disease Institute at Fudan University’s Medical College. "It’s true that second-hand smoke and cooking fumes are the main causes among women. "

He’s research also warned people not to stand near of stalls selling5 fried foods due to the poor quality of oils used.

The chance of catching lung cancer is three times higher if exposed to the fume for a long time,6 experts said.

練習:

1. What a new tendency in lung cancer is concluded by the researchers?

A Men are more likely to develop lung cancer than women.

B Women are more likely to develop lung cancer than men.

C Patients with lung cancer become older, especially males.

D Patients with lung cancer become younger, especially females.

2. Which of the following diseases is the most common among the local residents in Shanghai’?

A Heart disease. B Breast cancer.

C Infectious diseases. D Lung cancer.

3. What symptoms may be complained of by most women with lung cancer after long term. Close contact with cooking oil fumes’?

A Irritated eyes and throat. B Severe pain in both lungs.

C Continuous cough and headache. D Difficulty in breathing.

4. What was the local women’s reaction when they learned that cooking oil fumes could lead to cancer?

A Happy. B Surprised.

C Angry. D Careless.

5. Which of the following has relatively little connection with women’s lung cancer?

A Family cancer history. B Unhealthy dietary habits.

C Weak immune systems. D Personal health and physical condition.

第三篇 廚房油煙可致癌

醫學專傢們經過5年的研究調研後指出,城市人群中,男性患肺癌的首要原因是吸煙,而女性患此絕癥的罪魁禍首是廚房油煙。

醫生們昨天宣佈這一結果,並對肺癌患病的一些新趨勢做出分析。他們認為病人越來越年輕化,尤其是女性。

據上海腫瘤研究所統計顯示,本市死於肺癌的居民多於死於其他疾病的人。肺癌成為繼乳腺癌之後的第二大高發病率腫瘤。

上海民生中醫腫瘤診療中心何裕民醫生指出:“不健康的生活習慣是致癌的一個重要原因。”

他對2,276名肺癌患者進行瞭長達5年的追蹤調研。這些患者中有1,483名師男性。

報告顯示,案例中男性患者中70%是由吸煙誘發癌癥的,而直郵18%的女性患者是由於吸煙或被迫吸入二手煙才誘發癌癥的。

然而, 60%以上患肺癌的女性都長期接觸廚房油煙並主訴眼睛和喉嚨疼痛難受。

大約32%的女性在滾開的油裡煎炸食物而廚房卻密不透風。而大約25%的女性居住的臥室緊鄰廚房。

但是,婦女們知道廚房油煙可以致癌時都很驚訝。其中一些人表示要改變準備飲食的方式。

“我每天都得下廚做飯,除非我和傢人都不在傢用餐”,李旭,一名45歲的婦女說,“我知道油煙對皮膚不好,但是還是第一次聽說油煙竟能致癌、我以後要少煎炸食物。”

醫生們認為,女性患肺癌和個人健康及身體狀況聯系極少,但和腫瘤傢族病史、不健康的飲食習慣和脆弱的免疫系統聯系緊密。

其它專傢同意何醫生的意見。

“吸煙已經成為誘發男性肺癌最最大的因素,”上海復旦大學醫學院呼吸道疾病研究所名譽主席譚彬用指出,“二手煙和廚房油煙的確是誘發女性肺癌的主要原因。”

他的研究同時也警告人們不要站在賣油炸食品的攤點旁,因為他們使用的油都是劣質的。

專傢稱,如果長時間接受油煙,患肺癌的幾率有常人的3倍那麼高。

*第十八篇 Exercise Can Replace Insulin for Elderly Diabetics

Most older people with so-called type II diabetes could stop taking insulin if they would do brisk exercise for 30 minutes just three times a week, according to new medical research results reported in the Copenhagen newspaper Berlingske Tidende on Monday.

Results from tests conducted on diabetics at the Copenhagen Central Hospital Rigshospitalet s Center for Muscle Research showed that physical exercise can boost the body’s ability to utilise insulin by 30 per cent, the newspaper reported.

This is equal to1 the effect most elderly diabetics get from their insulin medication today, it said.

Researchers had a group of non-diabetic men and a group of men with type II, all more than60 years of age, exercise on bicycles six times a week for three months. After the three months the doctors measured how much sugar the test subjects muscles could utilise as a measure for how well their insulin worked.2

Associate Professor3 Dr. Flemming Dela of the Muscle Research Center said the tests demonstrated that the exercising diabetics had just as high insulin utilization as the healthy non- exercising persons.

"This means that the insulin works just as well for both groups. Physical exercise cannot cure people of diabetes, 4 but it can eliminate almost all their symptoms. At the same time it can put off5 the point at which they have to begin taking insulin or perhaps completely avoid insulin treatment," Dela was quoted as saying.6

Insulin isa hormone produced by the pancreas, controlling sugar in the body and used against diabetes.

Dela said that to achieve the desired effect diabetics need only exercise to the point where they begin to work up7 a sweat, but that the activity has to be maintained since it wears off8 after five days without sufficient exercise.

Most diabetics realize that they have to watch their diet while remaining unaware of9 the importance of exercise, Dela added.

練習:

1. How could most elderly type II diabetics stop taking insulin?

A By taking more salt than usual.

B By taking less salt than usual.

C By doing brisk exercise for half an hour at least three times a week.

D By going climbing, swimming or boxing every day.

2. Physical exercise may increase the body ability to utilise insulin by

A 70 per cent. B 30 per cent.

C 60 per cent. D only a few per cent.

3. The subjects of the research tests conducted at the Copenhagen Central Hospital included

A elderly non-diabetic men. B elderly type Ⅱ diabetic mere

C both sexes of all ages. D both A and B.

4. To what a degree have diebetics to exercise in order to achieve the desired effect’?

A To the degree where they begin to sweat.

B To the degree where they feel, exhausted.

C To the point when they reel thirsty.

D To the point when they have to take insulin.

5. According to Deta, among most diabetics the importance of exercise is ________________________ the importance

of watching their diet.

A as poorly understood as B as well understood as

C less understood than D better understood than

第十八篇 老年糖尿病患者進行體育鍛煉可以取代胰島素治療

哥本哈根的《貝林時報》周一刊登瞭一則最新醫療研究結果稱,大多數II型老年糖尿病患者隻要每周堅持三次輕快的體育鍛煉,每次30分鐘,都可以不用註射胰島素。

報道稱,哥本哈根市中心醫院Rigshopspitalet肌肉研究中心對糖尿病人進行測試,結果顯示體育鍛煉能將身體利用胰島素的能力提高30%。

據說,這一結果和大多數老年糖尿病患者每天接受胰島素治療的療效相同。

研究人員挑選瞭一組非糖尿病患者,一組II型糖尿病患者,都是60歲以上的男性。這些被試者每周騎自行車鍛煉六次,並持續瞭三個月。三個月後,醫生測量出被試者肌肉能夠利用的血糖總量,以此作為測量他們的胰島素工作狀況如何的標志。

肌肉研究中心副教授弗萊明·德拉醫生稱,實驗結果顯示,進行體育鍛煉的糖尿病患者胰島素利用率和那些沒有鍛煉的健康人胰島素利用率一樣高。

“這就意味著,兩組被試者的胰島素都是正常工作的。體育鍛煉不能治好患者的糖尿病,但是能最大限度地消除患者癥狀。另外,即使患者不得不接受胰島素治療,體育鍛煉也能盡量推遲這一臨界點,甚至有可能完全避免實施胰島素治療。”德拉醫生的話像格言一樣被人們所引用。

胰島素是胰腺分泌的一種激素,可以控制體內血糖,預防糖尿病。

德拉解釋說,糖尿病患者隻需鍛煉到出汗的程度皆可達到理想的效果。同時他還強調,這種鍛煉必須堅持,如果五天沒有進行有效鍛煉,效果就會消失。

德拉還補充說,大多數糖尿病患者意識到他們必須控制飲食,卻忽略瞭體育鍛煉的重要性。

*第二十四篇 Preventing Child Maltreatment

Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence of child maltreatment. Data for many countries, especially low- and middle-income countries, are lacking.

Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study. Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used. Nonetheless, international studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5’10% of men report being Sexually abused as children, while25-50% of all children report being physically abused. Additionally, many children are subject to1 emotional abuse (sometimes referred to as2 psychological abuse).

Every year, there are an estimated 31,000 homicide deaths in children under 15. This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to3 falls, burns and drowning.

Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences. Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems. Consequently, as adults, maltreated children are at increased risk for behaveioural, physical and mental health problems. Via the behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute to heart disease, cancer, suicide and sexually transmitted infections.4

Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment, there is an economic impact, including costs of hospitalizeation, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health costs.

A number of risk factors for child maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts, but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.

It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for5 maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated, such as being either under four years old or an adolescent, being unwanted, or failing to fulfil the expectations of parents and having special needs, crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.6

練習:

1. The difficult situation in the global estimates of the child maltreatment is due to the following factors EXCEPT ______________________ according to the passage.

A child maltreatment is a global problem

B there is no exact data about low- and mid-income countries

C there is a shortage of the professional data collectors

D different scientists use different research methods

2. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

A 20% of women got sexually abused in their childhood.

B 25-50% of all children were reported to have been physically abused.

C 25-50% of children were psychologically abused.

D 60-75% of children were neglected by their parents.

3. Many homicide deaths in children under 15 are wrongly categorized into the following types EXCEPT __________________ according to the passage.

A drowning in swimming B diarrhea

C bums D falls

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the bad impact caused by child maltreatment?

A The child will behave badly in his memory of his childhood when he grows up.

B Child maltreatment hurts his nervous and immune systems.

C Child maltreatment damages his early brain development.

D The child is easily affected by many diseases in his adulthood.

5. The maltreated children often bear all the following characteristics EXCEPT _________________ according to the passage.

A they frequently and easily cry

B they are in infant’s or in adolescent period

C they are often neglected by their parents or friends

D they often try their best to meet the requirements from their parents

第二十四篇 遏制虐待兒童現象

虐待兒童是一個全球問題,它會嚴重影響兒童的一生。由於缺乏很多國傢虐待兒童的數據,尤其是中低收入國傢的數據,目前對於兒童虐待在全球蔓延的成都, 我們還未能獲得可靠的數據。

虐待兒童的研究很復雜,很困難。當前,各個國傢大概的相關數據差別很大,而且使用的研究方法不同也會得出不同的估值。但是,國際研究顯示,大約有20%的女性和5%-10%的男性稱自己在童年遭到性虐待,而所有兒童的25%-50%都稱自己曾受肉體上的虐待。除此之外,很多兒童受到情感虐待(有時又成為心理虐待)。

每年,有大約31,000名15歲以下兒童遭到謀殺,但是由於很大一部分由兒童虐待造成的死亡被錯誤地歸因於墜樓、燒死或溺死,所以這一數據不能反映出這一問題真正的嚴重程度。

虐待兒童會給兒童和其傢人帶來持久的傷痛。虐待會造成壓力,而壓力會幹擾兒童早期的大腦發育。高度壓力會損傷神經和免疫系統的發育。之後,兒童長大成人,但是他們在行為、生理以及心理方面出現疾病的危險性大大增加。通過行為和心理上對健康的影響,虐待又會導致心臟病、癌癥、自殺以及性傳播疾病。

兒童虐待除瞭會造成健康問題,還會造成經濟損失,包括住院費用、心理治療費用、兒童福利和長期的醫療費用。

人們已經明確瞭造成兒童被虐待的大量風險因素。並不是所有的社會文化背景都包含這些風險因素,但是至少停工瞭一個風險因素概況,可以幫助理解兒童被虐待的成因。

有一點很重要,需要強調:兒童是受害者,而且絕不應該怪他們。不過,有幾大特征會增加兒童受虐待的可能性,這些特點包括:4歲以下或者處於青春期、不受歡迎、不能滿足父母的期望、有特殊需求、不停哭鬧或是身體有異常。

+第三十四篇 Be Alert to1 Antimicrobial Resistance

The ability of micro-organisms to find ways to evade the action of the drugs used to cure the infections they cause is increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Some bacteria have developed mechanisms which make them resistant to many of the antibiotics normally used for their treatment (multi-drug resistant bacteria), so pose particular difficulties, as there may be few or no alternative options for therapy. They constitute a growing and global public health problem. WHO suggests that countries should be prepared to implement hospital infection control measures to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reinforce national policy on prudent use of antibiotics, reducing the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

An article published in 7"he Lancet Infectious Diseases2 on 11 August identified a new gene that enables some types of bacteria to be highly resistant to almost/all antibiotics. The article has drawn attention to the issue of AMR3 (antimicrobial resistance), and, in particular, has raised awareness of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.

While multi-drug resistant bacteria are not new and will continue to appear, this development requires monitoring and further study to understand the extent and modes of transmission, and to define the most effective measures for control.

Those called upon to be alert to the problem of antimicrobial resistance and take appropriate action include consumers, managers of hospitals, patients, as well as national governments, the pharmaceutical industry, and international agencies.

WHO strongly recommends that governments focus control and prevention efforts in the following areas like surveillance for antimicrobial resistance; rational antibiotic use, including education of healthcare workers and the public in the appropriate use of antibiotics; introducing or enforcing legislation related to stopping the selling of antibiotics without prescription; and strict adherence to infection prevention and control measures, including the use of hand-washing measures, particularly in healthcare facilities.

Successful control of multidrug-resistant microorganisms has been documented in many countries, and the existing and well-known infection prevention and control measures can effectively reduce- transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms if systematically implemented.

WHO will continue to support countries to develop relevant policies, and to coordinate international efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance will be the theme of WHO’s World Health Day .

練習:

1. Why is the use of antibiotics arousing globally increasing interest?

A The misuse of the antibiotics has caused stronger bacteria resistance and no new drugs against the bacteria are available at present.

B The micro-organisms develop much faster than the past, so the researchers are more interested.

C The antibiotics for multi-drug resistant bacteria are highly priced and there will be a big market for the drug industry.

D The antibiotics has been found more powerful for the treatment of the multi-drug resistant bacteria.

2. Which of the following is true of the article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases?

A The issue of AMR led the scientists to be alert to the new human gene.

B A new drug will be soon available for any multi-drug resistant bacteria.

C A new strain has been found to be highly resistant to almost all antibiotics.

D AMR aroused the awareness of the scientists to the infections caused by the antibiotics.

3. Who of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage to take cautious and proper action about the AMR?

A Those who use antibiotics.

B Those who sell antibiotics.

C Those who produce antibiotics.

D Those who study in universities.

4. All the following recommendations to the governments from WHO is true EXCEPT

A education to the users of .antibiotics.

B control on the use of antibiotics in health facilities.

C introduction of new regulations on the sale of antibiotics.

D limit on the hospitals to store more antibiotic drugs than they can use.

5. What can you infer from the passage?

A WHO can only recommend the governments to control and prevent the transmission of multi- drug resistant organisms.

B Even with the new strains against the existing antibiotics, the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms is still under control.

C Without the support from WHO, no country can be safe in the war against the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms.

D WHO will spare no effort in antimicrobial resistance in and will set a special day for it in .

第三十四篇 警惕抗菌藥物的耐藥性

微生物引發感染後需要藥物治療,但是這些微生物漸漸對特效藥產生瞭抗藥性。細菌的抗藥性逐漸成為全球關註的公眾衛生事件。一些細菌通過改變自身機理,對許多用於治療感染的抗生素藥物產生瞭抗藥性(這就是所謂的“多重耐藥菌”),從而使治療變得很棘手,因為在治療過程人們隻有很少的選擇,甚至已經沒有選擇。這些問題成為一個日趨嚴重的全球性公眾健康問題。世界衛生組織建議各國應準備實施醫院感染控制措施,以限制多重耐藥菌的種類,並加強全國性政策謹慎使用抗生素以減少耐藥菌的產生。

年8月11日刊登在《柳葉刀-傳染病》期刊上的一篇文章中提到一種基因,這種基因可以是多種類型的細菌對幾乎所有的抗生素產生極強的耐藥性,引起瞭世人對AMR(即“耐藥性”),尤其是對多重耐藥菌感染的關註。

多重耐藥菌不是新生細菌,並且還會不斷出現,這就需要對其實施監控和深入研究,以便瞭解多重耐藥菌傳播的范圍和方式,從而采取有效手段進行防控。

這就要求人們提高對細菌耐藥性的警惕,並且消費者、醫院管理人員、病人、政府、藥品生產企業以及國際機構都要采取適當的行動。

世界衛生組織強烈呼籲各國政府在以下領域采取集中控制和防禦措施:AMR監管,抗生素合理使用,對公眾及醫務人員正確使用抗生素的教育,立法限制非處方購買抗生素以及感染的預防和控制措施,包括洗手這種方法,尤其是在醫療界。

對多重耐藥菌的成功防控已經在許多國傢得到瞭證實,隻要能夠系統地運用,現有的預防和控制手段可以有效地減少多重耐藥菌的傳播。

世界衛生組織將一如既往地支持各國實施相關措施,並協調所有國際努力,與細菌耐藥性進行鬥爭。耐藥性將成為年世界健康日的主題。

答案:衛生類

第三篇

1.D 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.D

第十八篇

1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C

第二十四篇

1.C 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.D

第三十四篇

1.A 2.C 3.D 4.D 5 B