The leading cause of lung cancer among women in the city was cooking oil fumes while men are more likely to develop the disease from smoking, said medical experts after a five-year research study.

Doctors announced the results yesterday with analysis on some new tendencies in lung cancer. They said patients are younger, especially women.

According to the Shanghai Tumor research Institute, more local residents die of lung cancer in the city than anything else. Following breast cancer, it has the second-highest incidence rate.

"An unhealthy lifestyle is a very important reason for lung cancer," said Dr He Yumin from Shanghai Minshen Traditional Chinese Medicine Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Center.

He followed 2,276 lung cancer patients for five years. Among them, 1,433 were male.

Smoking causes 70 percent of cases among men while only 18 percent of female patients developed cancer from smoking or inhaling second-hand smoke, according to the report.

However, more than 60 percent of women with the disease had long term, close contact with strong oil fumes from cooking and complained about1 irritated eyes and throat.

About 32 percent of women fried foods in boiling oil in unventilated kitchens and about 25 percent of women’s bedrooms were adjacent to2 the kitchen.

However, local women were surprised to learn cooking oil fumes could lead to cancer. Some claimed they may change food preparation methods.

"Unless my family and I don’t eat at home every day, I must stay in the kitchen to cook," said Xu Li, a 45-year-old local woman. "I know the fumes are bad for the skin, but it is the first time I heard that it can result in lung cancer. I have already started frying less."

Doctors said women’s lung cancer had few links to personal health and physical condition, but

was closely related to family cancer history, unhealthy dietary habits and weak immune systems.

Other experts agreed with He.3

"Smoking is by far the biggest cause4 of lung cancer for men," said Dr Tan Binyong, honorary president of the Respiratory Disease Institute at Fudan University’s Medical College. "It’s true that second-hand smoke and cooking fumes are the main causes among women. "

He’s research also warned people not to stand near of stalls selling5 fried foods due to the poor quality of oils used.

The chance of catching lung cancer is three times higher if exposed to the fume for a long time,6 experts said.


1. What a new tendency in lung cancer is concluded by the researchers?

A Men are more likely to develop lung cancer than women.

B Women are more likely to develop lung cancer than men.

C Patients with lung cancer become older, especially males.

D Patients with lung cancer become younger, especially females.

2. Which of the following diseases is the most common among the local residents in Shanghai’?

A Heart disease. B Breast cancer.

C Infectious diseases. D Lung cancer.

3. What symptoms may be complained of by most women with lung cancer after long term. Close contact with cooking oil fumes’?

A Irritated eyes and throat. B Severe pain in both lungs.

C Continuous cough and headache. D Difficulty in breathing.

4. What was the local women’s reaction when they learned that cooking oil fumes could lead to cancer?

A Happy. B Surprised.

C Angry. D Careless.

5. Which of the following has relatively little connection with women’s lung cancer?

A Family cancer history. B Unhealthy dietary habits.

C Weak immune systems. D Personal health and physical condition.

第三篇 廚房油煙可致癌







然而, 60%以上患肺癌的女性都長期接觸廚房油煙並主訴眼睛和喉嚨疼痛難受。









*第十八篇 Exercise Can Replace Insulin for Elderly Diabetics

Most older people with so-called type II diabetes could stop taking insulin if they would do brisk exercise for 30 minutes just three times a week, according to new medical research results reported in the Copenhagen newspaper Berlingske Tidende on Monday.

Results from tests conducted on diabetics at the Copenhagen Central Hospital Rigshospitalet s Center for Muscle Research showed that physical exercise can boost the body’s ability to utilise insulin by 30 per cent, the newspaper reported.

This is equal to1 the effect most elderly diabetics get from their insulin medication today, it said.

Researchers had a group of non-diabetic men and a group of men with type II, all more than60 years of age, exercise on bicycles six times a week for three months. After the three months the doctors measured how much sugar the test subjects muscles could utilise as a measure for how well their insulin worked.2

Associate Professor3 Dr. Flemming Dela of the Muscle Research Center said the tests demonstrated that the exercising diabetics had just as high insulin utilization as the healthy non- exercising persons.

"This means that the insulin works just as well for both groups. Physical exercise cannot cure people of diabetes, 4 but it can eliminate almost all their symptoms. At the same time it can put off5 the point at which they have to begin taking insulin or perhaps completely avoid insulin treatment," Dela was quoted as saying.6

Insulin isa hormone produced by the pancreas, controlling sugar in the body and used against diabetes.

Dela said that to achieve the desired effect diabetics need only exercise to the point where they begin to work up7 a sweat, but that the activity has to be maintained since it wears off8 after five days without sufficient exercise.

Most diabetics realize that they have to watch their diet while remaining unaware of9 the importance of exercise, Dela added.


1. How could most elderly type II diabetics stop taking insulin?

A By taking more salt than usual.

B By taking less salt than usual.

C By doing brisk exercise for half an hour at least three times a week.

D By going climbing, swimming or boxing every day.

2. Physical exercise may increase the body ability to utilise insulin by

A 70 per cent. B 30 per cent.

C 60 per cent. D only a few per cent.

3. The subjects of the research tests conducted at the Copenhagen Central Hospital included

A elderly non-diabetic men. B elderly type Ⅱ diabetic mere

C both sexes of all ages. D both A and B.

4. To what a degree have diebetics to exercise in order to achieve the desired effect’?

A To the degree where they begin to sweat.

B To the degree where they feel, exhausted.

C To the point when they reel thirsty.

D To the point when they have to take insulin.

5. According to Deta, among most diabetics the importance of exercise is ________________________ the importance

of watching their diet.

A as poorly understood as B as well understood as

C less understood than D better understood than

第十八篇 老年糖尿病患者進行體育鍛煉可以取代胰島素治療










*第二十四篇 Preventing Child Maltreatment

Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence of child maltreatment. Data for many countries, especially low- and middle-income countries, are lacking.

Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study. Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used. Nonetheless, international studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5’10% of men report being Sexually abused as children, while25-50% of all children report being physically abused. Additionally, many children are subject to1 emotional abuse (sometimes referred to as2 psychological abuse).

Every year, there are an estimated 31,000 homicide deaths in children under 15. This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to3 falls, burns and drowning.

Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences. Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems. Consequently, as adults, maltreated children are at increased risk for behaveioural, physical and mental health problems. Via the behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute to heart disease, cancer, suicide and sexually transmitted infections.4

Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment, there is an economic impact, including costs of hospitalizeation, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health costs.

A number of risk factors for child maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts, but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.

It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for5 maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated, such as being either under four years old or an adolescent, being unwanted, or failing to fulfil the expectations of parents and having special needs, crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.6


1. The difficult situation in the global estimates of the child maltreatment is due to the following factors EXCEPT ______________________ according to the passage.

A child maltreatment is a global problem

B there is no exact data about low- and mid-income countries

C there is a shortage of the professional data collectors

D different scientists use different research methods

2. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

A 20% of women got sexually abused in their childhood.

B 25-50% of all children were reported to have been physically abused.

C 25-50% of children were psychologically abused.

D 60-75% of children were neglected by their parents.

3. Many homicide deaths in children under 15 are wrongly categorized into the following types EXCEPT __________________ according to the passage.

A drowning in swimming B diarrhea

C bums D falls

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the bad impact caused by child maltreatment?

A The child will behave badly in his memory of his childhood when he grows up.

B Child maltreatment hurts his nervous and immune systems.

C Child maltreatment damages his early brain development.

D The child is easily affected by many diseases in his adulthood.

5. The maltreated children often bear all the following characteristics EXCEPT _________________ according to the passage.

A they frequently and easily cry

B they are in infant’s or in adolescent period

C they are often neglected by their parents or friends

D they often try their best to meet the requirements from their parents

第二十四篇 遏制虐待兒童現象

虐待兒童是一個全球問題,它會嚴重影響兒童的一生。由於缺乏很多國傢虐待兒童的數據,尤其是中低收入國傢的數據,目前對於兒童虐待在全球蔓延的成都, 我們還未能獲得可靠的數據。







+第三十四篇 Be Alert to1 Antimicrobial Resistance

The ability of micro-organisms to find ways to evade the action of the drugs used to cure the infections they cause is increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Some bacteria have developed mechanisms which make them resistant to many of the antibiotics normally used for their treatment (multi-drug resistant bacteria), so pose particular difficulties, as there may be few or no alternative options for therapy. They constitute a growing and global public health problem. WHO suggests that countries should be prepared to implement hospital infection control measures to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reinforce national policy on prudent use of antibiotics, reducing the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

An article published in 7"he Lancet Infectious Diseases2 on 11 August identified a new gene that enables some types of bacteria to be highly resistant to almost/all antibiotics. The article has drawn attention to the issue of AMR3 (antimicrobial resistance), and, in particular, has raised awareness of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.

While multi-drug resistant bacteria are not new and will continue to appear, this development requires monitoring and further study to understand the extent and modes of transmission, and to define the most effective measures for control.

Those called upon to be alert to the problem of antimicrobial resistance and take appropriate action include consumers, managers of hospitals, patients, as well as national governments, the pharmaceutical industry, and international agencies.

WHO strongly recommends that governments focus control and prevention efforts in the following areas like surveillance for antimicrobial resistance; rational antibiotic use, including education of healthcare workers and the public in the appropriate use of antibiotics; introducing or enforcing legislation related to stopping the selling of antibiotics without prescription; and strict adherence to infection prevention and control measures, including the use of hand-washing measures, particularly in healthcare facilities.

Successful control of multidrug-resistant microorganisms has been documented in many countries, and the existing and well-known infection prevention and control measures can effectively reduce- transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms if systematically implemented.

WHO will continue to support countries to develop relevant policies, and to coordinate international efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance will be the theme of WHO’s World Health Day .


1. Why is the use of antibiotics arousing globally increasing interest?

A The misuse of the antibiotics has caused stronger bacteria resistance and no new drugs against the bacteria are available at present.

B The micro-organisms develop much faster than the past, so the researchers are more interested.

C The antibiotics for multi-drug resistant bacteria are highly priced and there will be a big market for the drug industry.

D The antibiotics has been found more powerful for the treatment of the multi-drug resistant bacteria.

2. Which of the following is true of the article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases?

A The issue of AMR led the scientists to be alert to the new human gene.

B A new drug will be soon available for any multi-drug resistant bacteria.

C A new strain has been found to be highly resistant to almost all antibiotics.

D AMR aroused the awareness of the scientists to the infections caused by the antibiotics.

3. Who of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage to take cautious and proper action about the AMR?

A Those who use antibiotics.

B Those who sell antibiotics.

C Those who produce antibiotics.

D Those who study in universities.

4. All the following recommendations to the governments from WHO is true EXCEPT

A education to the users of .antibiotics.

B control on the use of antibiotics in health facilities.

C introduction of new regulations on the sale of antibiotics.

D limit on the hospitals to store more antibiotic drugs than they can use.

5. What can you infer from the passage?

A WHO can only recommend the governments to control and prevent the transmission of multi- drug resistant organisms.

B Even with the new strains against the existing antibiotics, the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms is still under control.

C Without the support from WHO, no country can be safe in the war against the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms.

D WHO will spare no effort in antimicrobial resistance in and will set a special day for it in .

第三十四篇 警惕抗菌藥物的耐藥性










1.D 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.D


1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C


1.C 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.D


1.A 2.C 3.D 4.D 5 B